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您現在的位置:首頁 > 高考總複習 > 高考知識點 > 高考英語知识点 > 2020高中英語基础知识点汇总

2020高中英語基础知识点汇总

來源:高考網整理 2020-02-13 18:32:50

  2020高考即将开战,你准备好了吗?高考網小编为各位考生整理了一些高考知識點,供大家参考阅读!

  1. be fond of “喜爱,爱好” 接名词、代词或动词的-ing形式。

  He’s fond of swimming.

  他喜歡遊泳。

  Are you fond of fresh vegetables.

  你喜歡新鮮蔬菜嗎?

  He is fond of his research work.

  他喜愛他的研究工作。

  2. hunt for = look for 寻找

  I have found the book I was hunting for.

  我找到了那本我在找的書。

  hunt for a job 找工作

  3. in order to/so as to:这两个词组都可引导不定式作目的状语, in order to可放于句首, so as to则不能, 其否定形式为in order not to / so as not to.

  He went to Beijing in order / so as to attend an important meeting.

  他去北京是爲了參加一個重要會議。

  In order to be noticed, he shouted and waved to us.

  为了让我们注意他, 他朝我们又是叫喊又是挥手。

  4. care about

  1) 喜欢,对……有兴趣 = care for

  She doesn’t care about money.

  她不喜歡錢。

  2)关心 = care for

  She thinks only of herself. She doesn’t care about other people.

  她只考慮自己。她不關心別人。

  3)在乎,在意(接從句或不接任何成分)

  These young people care nothing about what old people might say.

  這些年輕人根本不在乎老人說的話。

  5. such as 意为“诸如……”,“像……”,是用来列举人或事物的。

  She teaches three subjects, such as physics and chemistry.

  她教三门科目,像物理、化學。

  6. drop a line 留下便条, 写封短信

  7. make yourself at home 别客气;随便;无拘束

  If you get to my house before I do, help yourself to a drink and make yourself at home.

  如果你在我之前到我家,自己喝點飲料,隨便一點。

  8. stay up 不睡;熬夜

  (1) I'll be late home, don't stay up for me.

  我將回家很晚,不要等我了。

  (2) He stayed up reading until 2:00 in the morning.

  他熬夜看書直到淩晨兩點。

  9. come about 引起;发生;产生

  (1)How did the accident come about?

  這場事故是怎麽發生的?

  (2) They didn't know how the change had come about.

  他們不知道這個變化是怎樣産生的。

  10. except for 除……之外

  (1) except 与 except for 的用法常有区别。except 多用于引起同类事物中被排除的一项。如:

  ①He answered all the questions except the last one.

  除去最後一個,他回答了所有問題。

  ②We go there every day except Sunday.

  除了星期天,我們天天去那裏。

  (2)except for 用于引述细节以修正句子的主要意思。如:

  ①Except for one old lady, the bus was empty.

  除去一個老太太,這輛公共汽車全空了。

  ②Your picture is good except for the colours.

  你的畫兒很好,只是某些色彩有問題。

  (3)但在现代英語中,except for也用于表示except的意思。如上述第一个例子可以是:

  He answered all the questions except for the last one.

  (4) 另外,在介词短语之前只能用except,不能用except for。

  We go to bed before ten, except in the summer.

  除了夏季,我們通常十點之前上床睡覺。

  11. end up with 以……告终;以……结束

  The party ended up with an English song.聚会以一首英文歌结束。

  12. more or less 几乎;差不多;大约;大概;大体上

  (1) I've more or less succeeded, but they haven't.

  我差不多成功了,而他們沒有。

  (2) Our living condition has more or less improved.

  我們的生活水平或多或少提高了。

  13. bring in 引进;引来;吸收

  (1) We should bring in new technology.

  我們應該引進新技術。

  (2) He brings in 800 dollars a month.

  他一個月掙八百美元。

  14. get away(from) 逃离

  (1)The thieves got away from the shop with all our money.

  小偷帶著我們所有的錢從商店逃跑了。

  (2)I caught a really big fish but it got away.

  我釣到了一條好大的魚,可是它逃掉了。

  15. watch out (for)注意;留心

  (1)Watch out! There is a car coming.

  小心!汽車來了。

  (2)Watch out for the hole in the road.

  留神路上的那個坑。

  16. see sb. off 给某人送行

  Tomorrow I will see my friend off at the railway station.

  明天我到火車站給朋友送行。

  17. on the other hand 另一方面(用以引出相互矛盾的观点、意见等,常说on the one hand …… on the other hand一方面……另一方面)

  I know this job of mine isn't well paid, but on the other hand I don't have to work long hours.

  我知道這份工作報酬不高,但從另一方面來說,我也不必工作太長時間。

  18. as well as 和,还

  He is a talented musician as well as being a photographer.

  她不但是攝影師還是個天才的音樂家。

  19. take place 发生

  take one’s place 入座、站好位置、取得地位

  take sb’s place 或take the place of 代替、取代

  20. on fire 相当于burning, 意为“燃烧;着火;起火”,有静态的含意。catch fire有动态的含意。

  set…on fire/set fire to…用来表示“使……着火”、“放火烧……”。

  Look, the theatre is on fire! Let’s go and help.

  瞧,劇院著火了,咱們去幫忙救火吧。

  21. on holiday 在度假,在休假中

  When I was on holiday, I visited my uncle.

  我在度假的時候去看望了叔叔。

  22. travel agency旅行社

  =travel bureau

  23. take off

  1)脱下(衣服等), 解(除)掉

  He took off his wet shoes.

  他脫下了濕鞋子。

  2)(飛機)起飛

  The plane took off on time. It was a smooth take-off.

  飛機准時起飛。起飛非常順利。

  3)匆匆離開

  The six men got into the car and took off for the park.

  這六個人上了車,匆匆離開去公園。

  24. go wrong v. 走错路, 误入岐途, (机器等)发生故障

  25. in all adv. 总共

  26. stay away v.外出

  27. look up 查询(如宾语为代词,则代词放中间)

  Look up the word in the dictionary.

  在字典裏查單詞。

  相关词组:look for 寻找;look after照顾,照料;look forward to期待;look into调查;look on旁观;look out注意;look out for注意,留心,提防;look over翻阅,查看,检查;look around环视;look through翻阅,查看。

  28. run after 追逐,追求

  If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.

  同時追兩只兔子,你一只也抓不到。

  29. on the air 广播

  We will be on the air in five minutes.

  我們五分鍾以後開始廣播。

  This programme comes on the air at the same time every day.

  這個節目每天在同一時間播出。

  30. think highly/well/much of对……评价很高, 赞赏, 对……印象好

  He was highly thought of by the manager.

  經理對他非常贊賞。

  I think well of your suggestion.

  我覺得你的建議很好。

  think badly/nothing/little/lowly of……认为不好, 好……不在意, 不赞成, 觉得……不怎么样

  I don’t think much of him as a teacher.

  我覺得他作爲一個老師不怎麽樣。

  31. leave out

  1) 漏掉

  You made a mistake—You’ve left out a letter “t”.

  你出錯了—你漏掉了一個字母t.

  2) 删掉, 没用

  I haven’t changed or left out a thing.

  我沒有作出變動也沒有刪掉任何東西。

  32. stare at (由于好奇、激动等张着嘴巴,睁大眼睛地)凝视,盯着看

  Don’t stare at foreigners. It’s impolite.

  不要盯著外國人看,這樣不禮貌。

  比较:glare at (to stare angrily at)怒视着

  33. make jokes about 就……说笑

  They make jokes about my old hat.

  他們就我的舊帽子說笑我。

  have a joke with … about…跟某人开关于某事的玩笑。

  He stopped to have a joke with me.

  他停下來跟我開玩笑。

  play a joke on…开某人的玩笑

  We played jokes on each other.

  我們互相開玩笑。

  v. joke about 取笑

  They joked about my broken English.

  他們取笑我蹩腳的英文。

  34. take over 接管;接替;继承

  what is good and still useful should be taken over.

  好的有用的東西應當繼承。

  Our chairman has left, so Jack will take over (his job).

  我們的主席走了,因此傑克將接管(他的工作)。

  35. break down

  1) 破坏;拆散

  Chemicals in the body break our food down into useful substances.

  人体中的化學元素把食物分解成有用的物质。

  The peace talks are said to have broken down.

  (喻)據說和談破裂了。

  2)(機器)損壞

  Our truck broke down outside town.

  我們的卡車在城外抛錨了。

  The car broke down halfway to the destination.

  汽車在到達目的地的中途抛錨了。

  3) 失败;破裂

  Their opposition broke down.

  他們的反對意見打消了。

  4) 精神崩溃;失去控制

  He broke down and wept.

  他不禁失聲痛哭。

  5) 起化學变化

  Food is broken down by chemicals.

  化學物质引起食物转化。

  36. get on one’s feet

  1)站起來;站起來發言

  2)(=stand on one's feet)自立, 经济上独立

  3)(人)病好了, 可以起床了; (使)恢复, 复苏(指企业)

  37. go through

  1) 经历;经受;遭到

  These countries have gone / been through too many wars.

  這些國家飽經戰火。

  2) 完成;做完

  I didn't want to go through college.

  我不想上完大學。

  3)通過;批准

  The law has gone through Parliament.

  議會已經通過了這項法案。

  Their plans went through.

  他們的計劃得到了批准。

  4)全面檢查;搜查

  They went through our luggage at the customs.

  在海關他們檢查了我們的行李。

  38.take over 接管;接替;继承

  what is good and still useful should be taken over.

  好的有用的東西應當繼承。

  Our chairman has left, so Jack will take over (his job).

  我們的主席走了,因此傑克將接管(他的工作)。

  39. break down

  1) 破坏;拆散

  Chemicals in the body break our food down into useful substances.

  人体中的化學元素把食物分解成有用的物质。

  The peace talks are said to have broken down.

  (喻)據說和談破裂了。

  2)(機器)損壞

  Our truck broke down outside town.

  我們的卡車在城外抛錨了。

  The car broke down halfway to the destination.

  汽車在到達目的地的中途抛錨了。

  3) 失败;破裂

  Their opposition broke down.

  他們的反對意見打消了。

  4) 精神崩溃;失去控制

  He broke down and wept.

  他不禁失聲痛哭。

  5) 起化學变化

  Food is broken down by chemicals.

  化學物质引起食物转化。

  50. “So + be/have/助动词/情态动词+主词”的结构。此结构中的语序是倒装的,“So”代替上句中的某个成分。如果上面一句是否定句,则使用“Neither/Nor+be/have/助动词/情态动词+主语”的结构。

  He’s tired,and so am I.(=I’ m also tired.)

  You can swim,and so can I.(=I can also swim.)

  She has had supper,and so can I.(=I’ve had lunch,too.)

  Tom speaks English,and so does his sister.(=His sister speaks English,too.)

  A: I went to the park yesterday.

  B: So did I.(=I also went to the park yesterday.)

  51.“So +主语+be/have/助动词/情态动词”结构中的主谓是正常语序,so相当于indeed,certainly,表示说话人对前面或对方所说情况的肯定、赞同或证实,语气较强,意思是“确实如此”。

  A:It was cold yesterday.昨天很冷。

  B:So it was.的确如此。(=Yes,it was.)

  A:You seem to like sports.

  B:So I do.(=Yes,I do.)

  A:It will be fine tomorrow.

  B:So it will.(=Yes ,it will.)

  52.“主语+do/does/did + so”结构指的是按上句的要求做了。此句型中do so代替上文中要求做的事,以免重复。

  My Chinese teacher told me to hand in my composition on time and I did so.(=I handed inmy composition on time.)

  語文老师叫我按时交作文, 我照办了。

  53. So it is with…或 It is the same with…句型表示 “……(的情况)也是如此。”当前面的句子中有几种不同形式的谓语时,要表示相同情况,必须使用本句型,不能使用so 引起的倒装句。

  She doesn’t play the piano, but she likes singing. So it is with my sister.

  54. There you are. 行了,好。这是一句表示一种事情告一段落或有了最终结果的用语。

  There you are! Then let's have some coffee.

  除此之外,還可以表示“瞧,對吧(果然如此)”的語氣。

  There you are! I knew we should find it at last.

  對吧!我就知道我們最終能找到的。

  55. have some difficulty (in) doing sth. 干某事有困难;接名词时,常用句型:have some difficulty with sth.

  ①Do you have any difficulty (in) understanding English?

  你理解英語口语有困难吗?

  ②She said she had some difficulty with pronunciation.

  她說她在發音方面有困難。

  56. have a good knowledge of sth. “掌握……”,“对……有某种程度的了解”

  ①He has a good knowledge of London.

  他對倫敦有所了解。

  ②A good knowledge of languages is always useful.

  57. Wei Bin took out some peanuts and it was fun to see the monkey eat from his hand.魏彬拿出一些花生。看着猴子从他手上吃花生,很有趣。

  fun “好玩,趣事”,不可数名词,前面不加不定冠词a。

  You’re sure to have some fun at the party tonight. 今天晚上你肯定会玩得很开心。

  make fun of“取笑”,“嘲弄”。People make fun of him only because he is wearing such a

  strange jacket.人们嘲笑他只是因为他穿了一件那么奇怪的衣服。

  funny adj. “可笑的,滑稽的”。He looks very funny in his father’s jacket.他穿着他父亲

  的衣服,看上去很滑稽。

  58. It is polite to finish eating everything on your plate.把你盘子里所有东西吃完是有礼貌的。

  这是一个动词不定式作主语的句型,其中to finish eating everything 是主语,it是形式主语。

  59. 直接引语和间接引语

  (1)直接引語在改爲間接引語時,時態需要做相應的調整。

  eg: “I broke your CD player.” (一般过去时改成过去完成时)

  He told me he had broken my CD player.

  Jenny said, “I have lost a book.”

  (現在完成時改成過去完成時)

  Jenny said she had lost a book.

  Mum said, “I’ll go to see a friend.”

  (一般將來時改成過去將來時)

  Mum said she would go to see a friend.

  過去完成時保留原有的時態

  He said, “We hadn’t finished our homework.”

  He said they hadn’t finished their homework.

  注意 直接引语是客观真理,过去进行时,时态不变。

  (2)在直接引語變間接引語時,如果從句中的主語時第一人稱或被第一人稱所修飾,從句中的人稱要按照主句中主語的人稱變化。如:

  Mary said, “My brother is an engineer.”

  Mary said her brother was and engineer.

  (3)直接引語如果是反意疑問句,選擇疑問句或一般疑問句,間接引語應改爲由whether或if引導的賓語從句。如:

  He said, “Can you run, Mike?”

  He asked Mike whether/if he could run.

  (4)直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为“tell(ask, order, beg等) (not) to do sth.”句型。如:

  “Pass me the water, please.”said he.

  He asked him to pass her the water.

  (5)直接引語如果是以“Let’s”開頭的祈使句,變爲間接引語時,通常用“suggest+動名詞或從句”的結構。如:

  She said, “Let’s go to the cinema.”

  She suggested going to the cinema.

  或She suggested that they should go to the cinema.

  60. 现在进行时表将来的动作

  现在进行时表将来的动作,谓语通常为瞬间动词。如:come, go, arrive, leave, start, return, stay, meet, get等。这些动词的进行时后不能再接具体的时间。

  (1)用現在進行時表示將來,指的是近期的,按計劃或安排要發生的動作。

  (2)现在进行时表示将来与表示正在进行的动作的区别在于:前者通常用瞬间动词(有时一些常用动词也可以这样用如:do)如:go, come, start, return, get, arrive等。而后者通常是持续性动词。

  The train is arriving soon.

  火車就要進站了。

  He is reading a novel.

  他在看小說。

  (3)用現在進行時表示將來的時間,在句中或上下文中通常有表示將來時間的狀語。

  (4)現在進行時與一般現在時表示將來動作的區別在于:前者表示的將來的動作往往是可以改變的,而後者則是根據規定或時間表預計要發生的動作或事情,因此往往是不可改變或不可隨便改變的。

  What are you doing next Friday?

  下星期五你們打算幹什麽?

  The plane takes off at 7:30 tonight.

  飛機今晚七點半起飛。

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